What only breeds of chickens you will not meet today on farmsteads and personal plots of Russia. Many people breed chickens not only for meat and eggs, but also for decorative purposes, and these breeds are becoming more and more. But in the vast expanses of our country, it turns out, there is a breed of chickens, which is recognized worldwide as a model to follow in many respects, but, above all, in its beauty. Moreover, Pavlovsk chickens are recognized as almost the most ancient breed of chickens in Russian history. They are akin to ancient fossil animals, which anyone who is interested in palaeontology, wants to revive.
As for the Pavlovsk breed of chickens, it is almost like a phoenix bird, was revived from total non-existence in the eighties of the last century by the efforts of several breeders-enthusiasts, who also worked in completely different corners of Russia. At the moment, it is already possible to speak with complete clarity about the full restoration of this breed, although her fate was very difficult.
Partly due to the antiquity of origin, partly due to the lack of written evidence, the very history of the appearance of the breed of Pavlovian chickens is still, unfortunately, covered with darkness.
It is only known that the first chickens of this breed were bred in the village of Pavlovo, Nizhny Novgorod province, from which their name actually came. The village and its inhabitants became famous throughout Russia not only chickens. In antiquity, it was called Vulkanovo, due to the fact that the main craft, which was owned by almost every adult man in the village, was blacksmithing. Probably due to the fact that blacksmithing was highly valued in Russia, residents of the village were issued passports with a special decree of Empress Catherine II, with whom they could move freely not only throughout Russia but also outside its borders and trade in their products. Although at the same time serfdom flourished on the territory of the rest of Russia, Pavlovians had the opportunity, traveling, to bring various wonders from distant lands, and for good reason they became famous for bringing out a unique Pavlovian lemon that grew and fruited in almost every cottage.
They also engaged in breeding various species of birds: geese, chickens, canaries, etc. The inhabitants of the village of Pavlovo, apparently, were amazingly talented in everything, because they managed to bring out, and still keep clean, a breed of chickens with a very complex recessive genetics.
Since the XIX century, the Pavlovian breed of chickens begins to spread to many countries in Europe and Asia, where it receives due recognition, and only in its homeland she was almost forgotten altogether. Due to the neglect of domestic breeds and the preference in those years of all foreign, Pavlovian breed of chickens was placed almost on the verge of extinction. Although then, at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries, the disappearance of the breed was still prevented.
In 1878, Pavlovsky chickens were presented in Moscow at an international exhibition, and in 1899 they received the status of a national breed. But then the revolution of 1917, the Civil War and the years of expropriation that followed it, when many breeds of poultry and animals were lost or mixed up, occurred.
And only at the end of the last century, it was literally a miracle that the Pavlovian breed could be restored in the form in which it existed at the beginning of the 20th century.
Pavlovsky chickens, the description of the breed of which follows, are a small, firmly folded, bearded-crested bird with legs covered with dense plumage.
- The live weight of the rooster of this breed is about 1.5-2.2 kg, respectively, the chicken weighs about 1.3-1.5 kg;
- The head is round, medium size. The beak is almost straight, its color depends on the color of the plumage, thin;
- The eyes are rather large, round, dark;
- Ukrainian is one of the main features of the breed. There are three varieties, but the third is usually rejected. Ideally, a crest should have a round or oval base and grow in the form of a sheaf up, and then with such a peculiar fountain fall apart. There are also helmet-shaped Ukrainians, of a narrower shape, compressed on the sides and slightly inclined forward. However, they do not fall apart and the birds do not interfere with the sight. The third type of crest, when it falls apart badly and interferes with vision, is considered a marriage in the breed;
- The crest is very small, resembles the horns. Earrings are very small, difficult to distinguish due to beard feathers. The beard and tanks are well developed, thick, cover most of the face and throat. The face itself is red;
- The neck is not long and also covered with a thick feather cover. The wings are wide, medium, usually tightly pressed. The tail is full, beautifully dissolved at right angles to the back;
- The drumstick is also densely feathered, the so-called hawk shred is a distinguishing feature on it. In birds, feathers in the region of the knee joint are fan-shaped in the shape of a spoon, so when the chicken crouches, it forms a kind of feather bedding under her feet, thanks to which she can even sleep in the snow;
- Hocks (the so-called lower parts of the legs, bare in ordinary hens) are blue or gray, densely feathered, with feathers pressed to the metatarsus, and not protruding sideways, like other foot-legged breeds of chickens;
- Fingers should be four, at all the plumage must be present, not less than a quarter of the length.
The appearance of the hen and rooster of the Pavlovian breed is quite similar, except for the fact that the roosters have a tail that is much more pronounced and widely spread. The hen actually has no earrings. But, strangely enough, the Ukrainian, buck and beard are usually more developed in chickens than in a rooster.
Many novices, just starting to breed Pavlovsky breed, are interested in what age and how to distinguish chickens from roosters. In this regard, the breed is quite difficult, before two months to determine the sex is unlikely to succeed. Birds can disguise themselves well, but some signs can still be noted.
- In chickens, chickens look like a knob rather than a cap, while in males, the tuft is rather elongated in length in the form of a miniature iroquois;
- If you look at the chickens in the total weight from above, then the Pavlovian cockerel breed on the wings and back has a slightly larger and brighter pattern;
- Chickens fry faster and more evenly than cockerels, who need more time to grow and can have large well-defined bare spots on their bodies;
- The legs of males are usually larger and longer than those of chickens;
- Well, it is impossible not to mention the frequently used "popular method" of determining the sex of any chicken - to gently lift it into the air with one leg upside down. In this case, the hen will press his head up, toward the chest, and the cockerel will most likely be pulling his head down and to the sides, as if assessing the situation.
The gross disadvantages of the Pavlovian breed, when birds are usually rejected, include the following characteristics:
- the complete absence of crest or spread in different directions, interfering with the sight of crest;
- legs without plumage;
- no beard;
- presence of the fifth finger or cerebral hernia.
Characteristics of pavlovsk breed of chickens with a photo
The breed is considered decorative egg, because despite its unearthly beauty, the chicken of Pavlovsky breed is able to carry from 150 to 170 eggs per year. She begins to rush on average at the age of about one year. Eggs are white and sometimes cream-colored, the mass of eggs is rather large for such small birds - 50-65 grams. The taste characteristics of eggs are excellent, the yolk makes up a large part of the egg.Important! Eggs and meat of Pavlovian breed of chickens can be eaten even to people who are allergic to ordinary chicken eggs. In composition, they are more like quail. And the meat to taste like dichinu.
The roosters of the Pavlovsky breed grow quite quickly and by half a year they reach a mass of 1,200 to 1,500 grams.
The hens have a well-developed brooding instinct and are very caring moms who touchingly grow and raise their chickens. The hatchability is about 90%, and the survival rate of chickens is even higher - about 95%.
In general, the birds of this breed are very attached to a person, they gladly make contact, communicate, although they have a rather restless and active character.
The endurance of these birds also belongs to the category of miracle. In the frost -36 ° C, they do not hide in the hen-house, but prefer to spend the night voluntarily on the branches of the trees and on the fence. Due to their abundant feather cover, they do not frost up.
Finally, the color variations of the Pavlovian breed are quite diverse. Breeders have golden, silvery, smoky, black, white, porcelain, salmon and yellow variations of birds.
Pavlovskaya golden is one of the most popular and currently popular varieties of Pavlovian breed of chickens. This is one of those colors, the effigies of which have survived to the present time, and for them the selection of the appropriate specimens for breeding was done in due time. In the photo below you can see the remaining stuffed animals of a rooster and hen of Pavlovian breed, and on their background a living modern rooster.
The general basic shade of plumage is golden. On the tip of almost every feather there is a black speck of a rather regular shape. In some parts of the body, the specks acquire a rather distinguishable form of the Latin letter V. The crest and buck with a beard can be either black or variegated. However, it is difficult to convey in words the beauty of this plumage, for which the birds among the people received the name "gold".
The Pavlovskaya silver breed is the second most common breed, and it is this color that was also found among the old pictures illustrating representatives of the Pavlov breed of chickens.
In chickens and roosters of this variety, the white or silver primary color of the plumage prevails. And on it, just like in golden chickens, black specks of different size and shape and a fairly regular look are scattered.
It is known that the Pavlovian breed had other color variations, but they are much less common and are often rejected for non-compliance with one or another requirement of the breed standard. Nevertheless, white Pavlovian chickens are quite common - the color of their plumage is white-white according to the name.
Sometimes there are so-called porcelain pavlovsk chickens, the color of their plumage is so colorful that it is difficult to give preference to any one color. Look better at the photos of these beauties and see for yourself what they are more like.
Quite interesting are the yellow Pavlovian chickens, the color of which can be called rather red or pale yellow.
Well, and, finally, there are black Pavlovian chickens, which to a large extent resemble their close relatives - Siberian pedigree.
Pavlovskaya breed of chickens is not for nothing is very popular, because in addition to the high decorative properties and fairly high rates of egg production for the decorative breed, these birds are very unpretentious to the conditions of housing. What they really need is a lot of space to move, because these chickens are extremely energetic. Therefore, it is better not to keep them in the cells. The most important thing is to provide them with free walking on a sufficiently large area, since the lack of walks in the fresh air can adversely affect the health of Pavlovian chickens.
Pavlovian roosters behave fairly calmly, provided they exist over a large area, but in close conditions, they must be separated, since they themselves may not share living space.
Pavlov's chickens are unpretentious to feed, and in summertime they can practically provide themselves with food. In the winter, they, of course, need the usual good nutrition with vitamin and mineral supplements. Be sure to have chalk, shell rock and sand, in which chickens love to swim.
As you can see, the maintenance and breeding of the Pavlovian breed of chickens is not very complex, but if you wish, you can not only join the multiplication of domestic wealth, which is this breed of chickens, but also enjoy admiring them, as well as an additional tasty and healthy addition to the table in the form of meat and eggs.