Many varieties of walnut can be successfully grown not only in the fertile southern climate, but also in central Russia. The material below describes varieties of walnuts with a description of varieties and photos that can bear fruit in the south of the Russian Federation and in the temperate zone.
How many varieties of walnut are there
Walnut is a culture known from time immemorial. It is grown in Central Asia, Moldova, the Republic of Belarus, Ukraine and in the southern regions of the Russian Federation. To date, a large number of varieties, characterized by precociation, high yield, frost resistance and unpretentiousness in the care.
A large segment of breeding work aims to create cold-resistant trees in order to broaden the range of successful walnut cultivation. In the Tula region, a candidate of agricultural sciences Evgeny Vasin has created a collection of nut crops, including 7 species and more than 100 hybrids of walnut. Among them are those that can withstand a temperature drop to -38.5 ° C.
A valuable contribution to the creation of new hybrids has been made by breeders from the Tashkent region, where walnuts have been growing in the wild since the Tertiary. Extensive nut forests are the most valuable gene pool for breeding high-yielding varieties that can bring good profits when grown on an industrial scale.
Frost-resistant varieties of walnut
When choosing a walnut in Central Russia, the first thing you need to pay attention to is frost resistance. In a harsh climate for this southern culture, not every hybrid can survive the winter even under good shelter. There are several varieties specially bred for such conditions that have proven themselves well, from this point of view.
Ideal. Bred in 1947 by an Uzbek breeder from Fergana, Sergey Sergeevich Kalmykov. It differs by its precociousness, it can start to bear fruit as early as 2 years after planting, however, a good harvest can be collected only from a 5-year-old tree and older.
It grows 4-5 m in height, the flowers are perfectly pollinated by the wind. The nuts are oval-shaped, the shells are thin, the average weight of the fruit is 10 g. Harvesting is carried out from the beginning of autumn to the end of October. May bear fruit in 2 waves. Walnut Ideal withstands temperatures up to -35 ° C, resistant to chlorosis.
Astakhovsky. Comparatively new walnut variety, characterized by increased resistance to frost and pest damage. Entered in the State Register of Russia in 2015. Recommended for cultivation in private farms of the Central Black Earth, Central and Middle Volga regions of Russia.
The crown of the tree is able to quickly recover from frostbite, and tolerates cold temperatures down to -37 ° C. It begins to bear fruit from 6 years old, from one hazel can collect 10-20 kg. Nuts with a thin shell, easily splitting in two. The average weight of the fruit is 23.4 g, the maximum is 27.1 g. The variety is considered to be dessert, the rating of professional tasters is 5 points.
Memory of Minov. Bred by Belarusian breeders on the basis of RUP "Institute of Horticulture". Positioned as a large-fruited walnut medium ripening. The tree has a fast growth rate, the crown is powerful, of medium thickness, forked. The type of flowering is homogamous, that is, male and female flowers bloom simultaneously, which provides excellent pollination. Fruiting of the apical and regular for years, the first harvest is obtained after 5-6 years. Maturation occurs at the end of September.
Nuts are large, with a thin shell (1 mm), flattened with weak ribbing. The average weight - 15 g, the largest - 18.5 g
This winter hardy walnut variety withstands temperatures down to -37 ° C. Among the advantages worth noting immunity to brown spot.
Samokhvalovichsky-2. Short-term frost-resistant variety of medium ripening. The Republican Unitary Enterprise "Institute of Gardening" of the Republic of Belarus has been developed. The tree is powerful, with an average density of crown, nuts are formed by 2-5 pieces. on a branch or in hands of 8-10 fruits. The average weight is 8.3 g, the maximum is 10.5 g. The shell thickness is only 0.8 mm. Samokhvalovichsky-2 is considered a dessert variety.
Duet. Universal variety, featuring good winter hardiness, stable yield with high yield of the core. Recommended for cultivation in the Central Black Earth region. The tree grows to 13 m, the crown is thick, rounded. Egg-shaped nuts, weight - 11.2 g. Up to 10 kg of fruits per season can be collected from one specimen.
Tip! So that the tree does not strive to grow in height, when planting a wide piece of slate is placed on the bottom of the pit and sprinkled with nutritious soil, after which the seedling is placed in the hole.
Variegated walnut varieties
Each gardener when planting a new tree wants to quickly see the fruits of their labor, that is, the first harvest. For impatient gardeners, when choosing a walnut variety in the description, it is necessary, first of all, to pay attention to such a parameter as precocity.
Skoroplodny Levin. Low-growing (4-5 m) variety, characterized by high frost resistance. With prolonged negative temperatures in -35 ° C can freeze slightly, but after pruning it is quickly restored. This species was bred from Voronezh by Ivan Pavlovich Levin from Ideal.
Fruits are fine, easily break when squeezed with fingers. Nuts weigh an average of 8-14 g, kernels have a pleasant table taste. Fruiting is regular; up to 20 kg is collected from one adult walnut. It is not subject to pests and diseases.
Krasnodar skoroplodny. It has a high yield, is not affected by diseases and pests. The growth rate is high. The harvest ripens by the end of September. Nuts of medium size, weighing 8-10 g.
Dessert. Powerful spreading tree with a round-oval shape of the crown. Resistant to drought, but low winter hardiness. With the right agrotechnology fruits every year from 4-5 years, the type of fruiting - apical. The successful ratio of fats and proteins in the core provides the Dessert with excellent taste. Nuts weigh an average of 11.8 g, up to 22 kg can be removed from one tree per season.
Korenovsky. Obtained by Russian breeder V. V. Stefanenko by pollination of local large-fruited varieties with Ideal pollen. Trees are low, fruiting in clusters already for 2-3 years. Nuts are large, with a thin shell, dessert taste. Korenovsky walnut can bloom twice a year.
Uzbek skoroplodny. Bred in Asia. The tree has a compact size, which makes it possible to more dense planting. At the time of fruiting enters 3-4 year, blooms in several visits. Nuts are large, weighing 14-16 g, retain their presentation and taste for a whole year.
It is impossible not to note several varieties of varieties, bred by Ukrainian breeders:
- Donetsky skoroplodny;
- The gift is clean.
Dwarf Walnut Varieties
Low-growing walnut varieties are attractive because of the simplicity of the harvest and the ability to plant more trees in a small area. The most famous, from this point of view, are the varieties listed below.
Dwarf-3. The tree grows weakly, by the age of 20 it does not exceed 2.3 m, the diameter of the crown is 1.8 m. The fruits are round-oblong, with an average weight of 12 g. The shell is strong, 1.5 mm thick. When breaking, the core is removed completely. The crop is harvested in mid-September, from 1 hectare to 50 centners.
Dwarf-5. The name of the variety speaks for itself - the tree does not exceed a height of 1.5-2 m. It grows slowly, the crown is rounded, the branches are at right angles to the trunk. Fruits are medium-sized, egg-shaped, thin-bodied, average weight is 10.5 g. It begins to bear fruit after 3 years, brings the harvest annually. Differs in average frost resistance, at a temperature of -24 ° C the share of frostbite plots is 40-60%.
Kocherzhenko. This walnut variety is bred by the breeder from Kiev and named after the name of its creator. This is an improved version of the notorious variety Ideal. The tree is distinguished by a sparse compact crown, its height does not exceed 2.5–3 m. It matures early, for 2-3 years you can harvest the first crop. Fruits are large, round, covered with a delicate thin shell. Average nut weight - 14 g.
Walnut Kocherzhenko is distinguished by unpretentious care, precociousness and high frost resistance (up to -30 ° C). Recommended for cultivation in private gardens from Vladivostok to St. Petersburg, there is a successful experience of growing in the Urals and in Siberia.
Ivan purple. An undersized hybrid that does not grow higher than 2-2.5 m. The original Ideal was the starting material for the production of walnut varieties Ivan Bagryany. Fruits in clusters for 2 year. Trees can be planted according to the 3 * 3 m scheme. Differs in better frost resistance relative to the Ideal variety.Comment! Variety Ivan Bagryany named in honor of the famous Ukrainian writer.
Yuri Gagarin. In the description of the walnut variety Yuri Gagarin indicated increased frost resistance, good yield and excellent immunity to disease. It grows no more than 5 m, the crown is thick and spreading. Nuts are large, oval.
Abundant. An adult tree does not exceed 3-5 m in height. Fruits in 4 years of life, the fruits are formed as a bunch of 3-8 nuts. The average fruit weighs about 12 g, from one plant you can collect 28-30 kg. The abundant year by year is gaining popularity among gardeners, due to the high yield, excellent taste and resistance to brown spot. The only negative - the variety does not tolerate frost.
Lateral Walnut Varieties
Species and varieties of walnut with lateral (lateral) fruiting are especially valuable for selection work. On this hazel - female inflorescences, and subsequently the fruits, develop not only on the tops of mature branches, but also on young shoots. With sufficient illumination, such a lateral branch is able to bear fruit for several seasons in a row, which significantly increases the yield of lateral trees compared to the hazel nuts of terminal (apical) fruit bearing. Lateral varieties more quickly enter a period of stable fruiting, an average of 4 years after planting in the garden.
Peschansky. The tree is of medium size, the crown is rounded, medium-sized. The branches are quite rare, are located almost 90 ° to the trunk. Nuts are smooth, without pronounced ribs, rounded oval. The core is dense, oily, pleasant creamy tint. Taste is sweet. Crop harvested from late September to early October. The variety Peschansky is distinguished by good resistance to drought and frost (up to -30 ° C).
Vasion. A tree of medium height, not prone to major diseases of fruit and berry crops. It tolerates frost well to -30 ° C, it is possible that only young shoots are freezing without negative consequences for the plant as a whole.
The fruits are spherical in shape, on average - 18-20 g, the shell is thin. Variety Vasion - high-yielding, from 1 ha can be collected up to 50 centners of nuts.
Taisiya. Variety with late blooming and ripening. With regular pruning of the crown, the tree does not exceed a height of 3-4 m. The average foliage allows a more dense planting. With sufficient sunlight penetration, side shoots will also be fruitful. Taisia variety walnuts are large, on average - 16-20 g, the shell is thin, the internal partition is easily separated. Commercial appearance and taste - on top.
Timofey. The variety is an exact copy of Taisia, with a difference in the duration of the blooming of male and female flowers. Timofey and Taisiya are mutually-pollinated.
Chandler. Over the creation of varieties of lateral type of fruiting American scientists worked in the 19th century. The most famous variety, obtained in California in 1979, bears the name of its creator - William Chandler. It is a medium high-yielding variety, beginning to bear fruit in 3-4 years. Fruits are formed in the form of clusters, the weight of one nut is 14-16 g. Up to 5 tons of dry nuts can be collected from 1 hectare. In Russian conditions, the ability to cultivate this variety is only in the southern regions on cold-resistant acclimatized rootstocks.Comment! The Chandler variety is the most cultivated throughout the United States.
Large walnut varieties
Fetal weight is an important factor to be taken into account during breeding work. To date, several varieties that are leading in this indicator have been developed.
Giant. Variety Giant - an improved version of the Ideal. Possesses identical indicators of frost resistance. The tree grows up to 5-7 m, the crown is elegant and compact, which makes it possible to plant this walnut not only as a fruit crop, but also as a decorative one. Fully fructifying Giant begins with 6 years of age. The weight of nuts reaches 35 grams, with one adult hazel can gather up to 100 kg.
Bukovina bomb. The parental form of this mid-ripening nut was found on the household plot in the Donetsk region. Vigorous tree with a spherical crown. Fruiting is moderate, but annual, the average fruit weighs about 18 g, specimens of 28-30 g are known. The nuts have a rounded cylindrical shape, compressed laterally. The Bukovinian bomb is characterized by increased winter-hardiness, mediocre immunity to brown spot. Excellent conveys the properties of the mother plant when propagated by seeds.
Kalarashsky. Tall tree with a thick lush crown. Fruits annually, in rainy summer may be affected by brown spot. Nuts are large, weighing 15-19 g. The shell is slightly ribbed, round, of medium thickness, when splitting the core can be obtained entirely.
Without a doubt, the plants described above can be classified as large-fruited varieties:
- Memory of Minov;
Walnut varieties for the Moscow region
In addition to winter-hardy varieties listed above, for the Moscow region and regions with similar climatic conditions, a sufficient number of variations of walnut have been created. The main selection criteria for seedlings - frost resistance, yield, excellent taste.Comment! Some gardeners in a harsh climate give the crown a creeping shape so that there are no problems with shelter for the winter.
Yield. Mid-season variety, nuts ripen by the end of September. In height Yield can reach 6 m, crown - broadly oval, dense, with apical-lateral type of fruiting. The harvest is regular from 4-5 years, from one copy it is possible to collect up to 24-28 kg of nuts. The weight of the average fruit is 8.7 g, the shell is not more than 1 mm thick. Resistance to brown spot is mediocre.
Winter-hardy, recommended for widespread cultivation. Yield - old, time-tested variety, entered in the State Register of breeding achievements in 1965.
Aurora. A vigorous tree growing over 6 m in height, the growth rate is fast. Fruits in 4 years, with each season, the yield increases. Aurora adult walnuts can bring up to 25 kg per season. The weight of an average nut is 12.8 g, the shell thickness is 0.9 mm.
It is characterized by winter hardiness and good immunity to various diseases. Recommended for ubiquitous cultivation within industrial plantations.
Sadko. This frost-resistant dwarf variety is often called the Shugin nut, after the breeder’s name. A native of Kharkov, when moving to the suburbs, he set out to bring a variety that could survive the winter in the conditions of the Moscow region and at the same time not yield to the taste of his southern Ukrainian counterparts. In the early 1980s, he obtained Sadko — prolific, winter-hardy, and precocious.
The tree is stunted (up to 3.5 m), begins to bear fruit for 3 years. Fruits are not large - about 4 cm in size, but on one bunch they grow 6-8 pieces each.
Moscow region. The early ripe grade differing in good frost resistance. Nuts are large, the core has an excellent dessert taste. The name implies cultivation in the conditions of the Moscow region.
Attention! Recently, botanists managed to bring a walnut with a red-colored shell.
Walnut varieties for the Krasnodar Territory
Especially for the fertile conditions of Krasnodar with its warm climate, the Russian specialists of FGBNU SKZNIISiV received several varieties of walnut, optimally suitable for cultivation in the region.
Elegant. Mid-early variety, beginning to ripen from mid-September. The tree is medium thick, up to 5 m in height, with a powerful, well leafy crown oval. The first decent harvest is removed for 5-6 years, terminal fruiting.
Nuts of excellent trade dress, weigh about 12.5 g, the shell thickness does not exceed 1.2 mm. With an adult hazel can be obtained for the season up to 20 kg. Grade is characterized by high resistance to drought, it rarely suffers from marson. Recommended for industrial cultivation.
Krasnodar The variety is in state testing. The tree is tall, with a widely rounded dense crown requiring thinning. Fruits annually from 4-5 years, harvest occurs at the end of September.
Nuts possess excellent taste and a worthy commodity look. The average weight is 12.7 g, up to 20 kg is removed from a 10-year-old hazelnut. Krasnodar tolerates drought well, rarely suffers from fungal diseases, in particular, from Marson.
Pelan. Дерево высокорослое, с верхушечно-боковым типом плодоношения, к 14 году жизни достигает высоты 10 м при диаметре кроны 9,5 м. Приносит стабильный урожай с 4-5 года. В Прикубанской зоне орехи собирают в 20-х числах сентября. Плоды мелкие, широкоовальные, средний вес - 9,5 г. Скорлупа тонкая, при извлечении ядро разламывается надвое.
Пелан редко страдает от вредителей и болезней, отличается повышенной устойчивостью к отрицательным температурам и засухе.
Заря востока. Скороспелый сорт, районированный в Краснодарском крае. The tree has an average growth rate, bears fruit from 4-5 years, the type of fruiting is apical-lateral. Nuts ripen by the end of September. Fruit size is medium, weight is about 9 g. Up to 24 kg of nuts can be removed from an adult between the ages of 10-12 years. The variety has an average winter hardiness, resistance to marsonioz is also average. The dawn of the east is considered one of the best varieties of walnut for Kuban. Recommended for private gardens.
Uchkhoz Kuban. It is characterized by abundant and regular fruiting since 4 years after planting. Thin-walled nuts, weigh an average of 9 g. It tolerates frosts well, but has low immunity to diseases and pests.
Five Year Plan. New variety, which is in the state test. It is characterized by increased frost resistance, high annual yield. In field conditions, resistant to brown spot. Fruiting apical-lateral, occurs at 4-5 year after planting. Nuts are harvested in the last days of September. Up to 20 kg can be removed from a single tree aged 8-10 years. The average fruit weight is 9 g. Five-Year Plan is a promising variety for cultivation in the Kuban.
In addition to the above, in the Kuban popular varieties such as:
- State Farm;
- Petrosian's favorite;
- Krasnodar skoroplodny;
What is the best walnut variety?
The concept of the best walnut variety is ambiguous. For each gardener he has his own. With today's rich assortment, it is easy to choose a variety based on your own preferences and the climate of the region. Some rely on crop yields to plant crops on an industrial scale, others on frost resistance, so that the young tree does not die at the first snowy winter, others on tasting indicators of the nuclei.
Various varieties of walnut, bred recently, significantly expanded the area of possible cultivation of this crop. Once you have planted at least one nut seedling in your garden, you can provide yourself and your loved ones with a healthy and environmentally friendly product for many years to come.