Bulgarian pepper and eggplants are often grown side by side: on neighboring beds or in the same greenhouse. These cultures have a lot in common:
- demanding care;
- high frequency of watering;
- love of nourishing soils;
- identical terms of sowing seeds;
- approximately equal time of fruit ripening;
- The most important factor is heat-loving.
Such similarity allows you to simultaneously grow the seeds of pepper and eggplant seedlings. How to do it right and get a high harvest in the next season - in this article.
What stages must pass the seeds
Many summer residents and gardeners with experience have a negative experience of self-growing seedlings of pepper and eggplant. As a rule, these cultures give poor germination, do not like picking, they slowly adapt to a permanent place. As a result, the gardener loses most of the seedlings, which affects the yield of vegetables.
To reduce the loss of seedlings, you must follow all the recommendations and do not skip any of the steps below. So, the seedlings of pepper and eggplant need to be planted in several stages:
- Determination of the timing of sowing seeds.
- Selection of seed material.
- Preparation of tanks for seedlings.
- Mixing soil for seedlings.
- Processing and hardening of seeds.
- Sprouting seeds.
- Planting seeds in the ground.
- Waiting for germination.
- Care for young seedlings.
- Pick (if needed).
- Hardening seedlings before planting on a permanent place.
- Transfer of seedlings to the beds or in the greenhouse.
Important! The root system of peppers and eggplant is so fragile that these plants very poorly tolerate any transplant. To reduce stress, it is better to initially plant the seedlings in individual containers. This allows you to do without picks.
Calculating the date of sowing seeds
In order to correctly determine the time of sowing seeds for seedlings, you need to know the timing of ripening of the selected variety, as well as the climatic features of the region. Basically, the growing season of bell peppers ranges from 90 to 140 days, for eggplant this time is slightly longer - 100-150 days.
In the southern regions of Russia, seedlings of peppers and eggplants are carried out by most of the gardeners on the ground in early May, for the middle lane it is the middle or the end of May. In the north and the Urals, thermophilic peppers and eggplants are most often grown in greenhouses or greenhouses, but there are varieties suitable for the climate of these regions. In such a case, it is necessary to transfer the seedlings to the beds not earlier than the beginning of June, when the air temperature stabilizes and the threat of night frosts disappears.
Considering that sprouts from pepper seeds and eggplant appear on the 8th-15th day after sowing, it is possible to calculate the approximate planting time of the seedlings - this is the end of February or the beginning of March. It was during this period that gardeners and gardeners of the greater territory of Russia fill the windowsills of their apartments with boxes of vegetable seedlings.
Tip! If for some reason the time was lost, and the seedlings are planted too late, you can try to accelerate its growth by the method of additional lighting. To do this, use fluorescent lamps at 40-60 watts, which are installed above the pots of seedlings at a height of about 15 cm. It is recommended to turn on the light from 8 to 20 hours, regardless of the intensity of natural lighting.
Selection and preparation of seeds for planting
First of all, the gardener should decide on the variety of pepper or eggplant. If this is not the first experience of growing seedlings on their own, in principle, you can choose any variety.
And for those who are just trying to grow their seedlings, it is better to buy the seeds of the most unpretentious varieties of pepper and eggplant. Typically, these varieties do not have high yields or outlandish fruits - as a rule, these are the most common, average, crops. But these plants are much better tolerated transplant, not so whimsical in the care, provide a low but stable harvest.Attention! Another factor to consider when choosing a variety of peppers or eggplants is the ripening time of vegetables. For Russia, it is preferable to choose varieties with a short growing season (up to 110-120 days).
Experienced gardeners are well aware of all the rules for growing seedlings of each crop, and for beginners comprehensive information about this is indicated on the package with seeds. A good agrofirm can be easily calculated from the information on the packaging of seeds, there should be:
- ripening time of pepper or eggplant;
- landing pattern;
- recommended soil;
- temperature frames;
- information about endurance and yield varieties;
- disinfection and other seed treatments.
Having decided on the seeds, you can proceed to the next stage - processing. As a rule, the expensive seeds of proven agricultural firms have already undergone all the necessary preparation for planting. This can be ascertained by finding information on the packaging, and some companies paint the seed that has been processed or seal the seeds in colored capsules, like glazes.
When the seeds were collected by the cottagers from their own harvest last year, all the preparatory measures should be performed in the following sequence:
- Maintain seeds in a one percent solution of manganese, 20-30 minutes is enough. After that, the seeds of pepper and eggplant are washed under a stream of cold water. This procedure is aimed at disinfecting seed.
- Improving the germination of seeds of pepper and eggplant contribute to special growth promoters. You can prepare this mixture yourself: zinc, manganese, sulfuric acid and boric acid, ammonium molybdate. In this composition the seeds are placed for a couple of days, after which they are washed and dried.
- Etching is usually performed in an industrial environment. In fact, it is applying to the seeds of pesticides (granules or powder).
- Quenching is necessary for absolutely all seeds of eggplants and peppers, otherwise the plants of these heat-loving crops will die with a sharp decrease in the surrounding temperature. Hardening the seeds should be in several stages, alternately placing them in the heat and on the top shelf of the refrigerator. The time of each procedure is 10-12 hours, the number of temperature differences is about four.
These measures contribute to better germination, quick seed sowing, rapid growth of seedlings.
Growing seedlings of eggplants and peppers will be more effective if the seeds germinate before planting in the ground. This stage will take only a few days (from 3 to 5), but the result will be much better.
For germination seeds of pepper and eggplant are placed on a damp cotton cloth or cotton pads. It is not recommended to use gauze or bandage for these purposes, since fragile shoots often cling to the mesh of threads and break.
You do not need to pour too much water on the fabric - pepper and eggplant seeds should not float, it is enough to maintain a constant moisture content of the fabric or cotton wool.
Attention! To further accelerate the process will help the high temperature of the air - at the level of 27-28 degrees, as well as special growth stimulants, which can be bought in a specialized store.
Preparation of tanks for seedlings and filling them with soil
As mentioned earlier, the seedlings of peppers and eggplants are best grown immediately in individual pots - these plants do not tolerate picking. For these reasons, peppers and eggplants are rarely grown in large boxes, the most suitable container for them is small plastic pots.
The diameter of the pot for the seedlings of the Bulgarian pepper is 4 cm, for eggplants we need more capacity - about 5 cm.
To further reduce the risk of damage to seedlings of peppers and eggplants during transplantation, the seeds of these crops can be sown in peat cups. Such seedlings are transferred to the ground along with the tank - peat decomposes in the ground, not hindering the growth of roots.Tip! Saving on cups is quite simple - the seeds of eggplants and pepper can be sown in containers folded from dense polyethylene. When transplanting the oilcloth is removed, the plant is planted along with an earthy clod.
One can say one thing about the soil for peppers and eggplants - these cultures love light and crumbly soils rich in nutrients and oxygen. Every experienced gardener has his own "recipe" for preparing the substrate for the seedlings of these capricious plants. The most successful of them are mixtures:
- turfy ground, sand, humus;
- peat, humus, sawdust;
- garden soil, manure humus;
- turfy ground, peat, vermicult.
The prepared substrate must be disinfected, the best way is the calcination of the soil in the oven. You can treat the soil with special antibacterial agents.
Prepared containers for pepper and eggplants are filled with the substrate, pouring a layer of not more than 7 cm. The earth is shed with distilled warm water with the addition of manganese and left for 10-12 hours.
Germinated seeds should be sown immediately after extraction with a damp cloth. In the ground of each cup make two grooves. Their depth should be about 1 cm, and the distance between them - not less than two centimeters. It is better to plant two seeds at once in each container, afterwards, when there are three true leaves on each plant, the weaker sprout must be removed.
Seeds are carefully placed in the soil and sprinkled with the substrate. Tamping the ground is not necessary, the seeds of pepper and eggplant like the air. Watering newly sown seeds is also not necessary, they should be enough for the first watering not 4-5 days.
Capacity is better to cover with plastic wrap or glass. This contributes to the preservation of moisture and maintaining the temperature inside the cups with seeds.
For sprouting pepper and eggplant need a temperature of about 28 degrees, so the first few days you need to keep the containers with the seeds in a very warm place.
As soon as the first shoots appear, the film needs to be removed, otherwise the plants will turn yellow and disappear.
Seven days after emergence of shoots, the temperature must be reduced to 23 degrees. During this period, a root system is formed in the seedlings of eggplants and peppers. After 5 days, you can return to the previous temperature.
It is quite difficult to care for peppers and eggplants - these cultures require constant attention to themselves. Therefore, at the stage of growing seedlings gardener need:
- water the plants about once every five days. In this case, at first it is better to do this with a spray or a teaspoon, so as not to erode the ground around tender shoots. Subsequently, watering can produce a watering can, trying not to pour water on the leaves. The seedlings behind the glass can get sunburn through water droplets. For watering seedlings eggplant and pepper need to use soft water, boiled or distilled. Ideal option - thawed or rain water.
- Seedlings of pepper and eggplant like nutritious soil, these plants need regular fertilizer. To stimulate the growth of seedlings and the growth of green mass, it is necessary to fertilize it with nitrogenous compounds.
- If sunlight is not enough, peppers and eggplants need to be artificially illuminated. To do this, use lamps installed at a distance of 15 cm from the plants. They are turned on for 10-12 hours a day, the rest of the time the seedlings should “sleep”, it is covered with a thick cloth, and the lamps are turned off.
- Be sure to withstand temperature conditions. In the daytime, the room should be about 25 degrees, and at night the temperature should be reduced to 15 degrees. This will help eggplants and peppers to get used to the natural conditions that await them in the garden.
- Seedlings begin to air when there are three true leaves on the stems. First, open the window on the window, near which are located containers with eggplants and pepper. Then the plants can be taken out on the loggia or balcony. After 10-14 days begin to make seedlings on the street, gradually increasing the time of its stay in the fresh air. 10 days before transplanting seedlings to the beds, young peppers and eggplants should calmly stand all day in the fresh air.
- Eggplant and peppers need to be prepared for planting. 10-12 hours before this plant is watered abundantly with warm water. It is better to make a transplant on an overcast day or to do it in the evening when the heat subsides.
No matter how hard gardeners try to grow decent seedlings, there is always the risk of making a mistake. In the case of peppers and eggplants, even a small misstep can be fatal - these plants are too tender.
Experienced farmers advise:
- Avoid drafts.
- Place the seedlings in southeast and southwest windowsills.
- To create increased humidity in the room, using household humidifiers or a wet towel on the battery.
- Every 3-4 days, turn the cups with eggplants and pepper around its axis - so that the plants are evenly illuminated by the sun, their stems do not tilt in one direction.
Compliance with all the rules and recommendations will help novice gardeners to grow their seedlings. And it will save from buying low-quality plants of pepper and eggplant, help to transplant as soon as possible, will ensure high yields of tasty and healthy fruits.
Sowing seeds of pepper and eggplant for seedlings is a feasible task for every farmer.