At the summer cottage the whole season is endless weed control. Due to their unpretentiousness, they adapt to any conditions, survive and multiply rapidly even on bad soils. There are many ways to get rid of weeds. Among them, the cultivation of crops that inhibit the growth of weeds and at the same time improve soil fertility deserves special attention. The question of how to sow a vegetable garden so that weeds do not grow, has an amazing answer - green manure plants or green fertilizers.
After the siderats gain enough green mass, they are mown on compost or mulch. There is no need to dig up the ground - the roots gradually rot themselves, fertilizing it. Most of the green manure prefer weak acid and neutral soils. Choose what to sow the area, you need to take into account their features.
The benefits of sideratov
Siderats are gradually becoming widespread among gardeners, thanks to the availability and useful properties. Their advantages are obvious:
- they almost completely eliminate the use of mineral fertilizers, as they enrich the soil with microelements;
- restore the soil after acidification with fertilizers;
- loosen, improving its structure;
- activate soil microflora;
- having a phytosanitary effect, inhibit dangerous pathogens;
- inhibit the growth of weeds.
Bean green mans
The most unpretentious legumes. This is the most common culture, including up to 18 thousand species. Among them are herbaceous plants - annual and perennial, which grow well in temperate climates. Shrubs and trees are common in the tropics. Peas, beans, lentils and others are characteristic of Russia. They withstand slight frosts, and begin to rise at three degrees of heat, which allows them to be used in almost any climate zone. In addition to food beans, numerous types of fodder are used - alfalfa, clover and ornamental - sweet peas, acacia.
It is possible to plant beans in the early spring, and in the fall they give green mass almost to the first night frosts. Thanks to nitrogen-fixing bacteria located on the root system, the soil after them is enriched with nitrogen in a form that is available to plants. Bean crops are useful for trees. Plant roots, going deep into the soil, will become a source of nitrogen for them.Important! According to experts, three times per season, sown with legumes and a dug up area will be equivalent to the soil fertilized with manure.
On wetland or clay soils, it is recommended to plant fodder beans. They are excellent sideratami, thanks to its features:
- plants have a well-developed root system capable of draining and structuring the soil to almost two meters deep;
- normalize the pH of the soil, reducing its acidity;
- transfer phosphorus compounds in a form available to plants;
- they are cold-resistant and not afraid of frost to minus eight degrees;
- beans are rich in minerals.
It is a large siderat plant with strong roots extending deep into the soil. It tolerates frosts and droughts well, improves the soil structure of salt marshes. It can be used in the fight against wireworms and other pests. The clover is usually planted at the end of summer and is left for winter, in spring the green mass grows again, which is cut to flowering.
The unique sidereal characteristics are distinguished by the honey-bearing perennial espartset:
- he is able to germinate even on stony soils;
- thanks to strong and long roots up to 10 meters, it perfectly drains the soil and takes nutrients from deep layers closer to the surface;
- the plant is resistant to drought and frost.
Other members of the family
- Pea has all the properties of legume siderats. It grows quickly, does not allow weeds to multiply. The plant prefers neutral soil, loves moisture. Peas are usually planted at the end of summer, and until the fall, it is gaining a sufficient green mass.
- In early spring, beds for tomatoes are useful for sowing with a vetch, an annual legume green manure plant, which quickly gains green mass, inhibits weeds and structures the soil. Vika is cut for 10-14 days before planting of tomato seedlings.
- Lupines can be sown on abandoned plots. Siderat grows well on any soil, significantly improves their fertility and is considered the best predecessor for garden strawberries.
- Alfalfa is a wonderful perennial green manure, which increases the fertility of the soil with a green mass rich in nutrients. The plant likes moist but not swampy, neutral soils. Her mowed during the formation of buds.
- Seradella can produce two harvests of green mass for one season. This moisture-loving annual plant can grow on bad soils, if you provide it with watering. Easily tolerates frosts.
Plants from this family are distinguished by unpretentiousness and viability, and their root secretions scare away many pests and inhibit late blight pathogens.
Annual cruciferous herbaceous plant - white mustard is fairly resistant to frost, it can be planted in the middle belt of the country in March. As a siderat, it has the following characteristics:
- inhibits weed growth - is effective against convolvulus;
- binds iron in the soil, protecting these plants from late blight;
- inhibits pests such as pea moth, slugs;
- the resulting green mass turns into a humus useful for plants;
- mustard gives up to three meters long roots, loosening and draining the soil;
- holds nitrogen therein;
- after the first snow, the stems and leaves independently fall on the ground, forming mulch and protecting it from frost;
- after mustard, it is good to plant tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, and beans and grapes feel comfortable next to it;
- like a beautiful honey plant, it attracts bees to the garden.
- Rapeseed is characterized by resistance to small frosts and a quick set of green mass - in a month it can grow up to 30 cm. With the help of long roots it pulls mineral compounds of phosphorus and sulfur from the soil and converts them into a form that is accessible to garden crops.
- Oilseed radish is the most unpretentious plant of this family and is an excellent siderat, which is not afraid of either drought or frost. Thanks to a strong root system, it perfectly adapts to a wide variety of growing conditions. A depressing effect on wheatgrass. Even with late plantings, manages to gain significant green mass.
- Colza is a one-year moisture-loving siderat. Even planted in September, when it is abundantly watered, it quickly gains green mass.
Cereals are excellent sideratami. They effectively clean the area from weeds and fertilize it.
The plant is a green manure that grows well on acidic soils, and its roots have a phytosanitary effect against root rot. The grass is usually sown in early spring, when the frosts recede, and the green mass is removed before flowering. Its green sprouts are very beneficial for the body. Oats enriches the soil with potassium in a form that is accessible to plants, therefore after it tomatoes, peppers and eggplants feel good.
Due to frost resistance, rye is more often used as a winter crop, sown in late August or in September. It effectively suppresses both weeds and pathogens. Rye has a depressing effect on other crops, so you should not plant garden plants next to it. Usually, the green mass is cut at the end of spring, before planting vegetables. Plant grasses well in wetlands to dry them.
Possessing all the positive properties of siderats, barley is drought-resistant, which allows its use in arid areas. It is able to withstand frosts up to -5 degrees and quickly increases the green mass. Therefore, barley can be planted in early spring, and after one and a half months to mow.
Excellent sideral properties are observed in buckwheat:
- it grows very quickly, at the same time growing green mass up to 1.5 meters long roots;
- buckwheat is drought resistant and does not take water from neighboring plants;
- it is well adapted to any soil and does not leave in them chemical compounds that inhibit the growth of other crops;
- enriches the soil with phosphorus and potassium;
- effective against perennial weeds such as wheat grass.
Buckwheat can be used as a winter crop. Often they plant tree trunks around trees in gardens. In the spring it needs to be sown when the soil is warm enough. Green mass of buckwheat mowed before flowering.
Phacelia is versatile in its siderealous properties:
- it maintains rather low temperatures - to minus nine degrees;
- grows even on stony soils, quickly gaining green mass;
- not afraid of drought;
- it can be planted at any time - in summer, autumn or early spring;
- the plant has a phytosanitary effect on the nematode and various pathogens;
- after its crops almost all cultures grow well;
- in the presence of legumes, their mutual action is enhanced.
Planting this heat-loving plant is better to get rid of beds after early vegetable crops, and it is possible to mow green mass before flowering or before autumn frosts. It is unpretentious, it takes root on both salty and acidic soils, and is not afraid of drought. Due to the long, two-meter roots, amaranth improves soil structure and increases its fertility. The plant is resistant to diseases and has phytosanitary properties.
An indispensable green manure for tomatoes, as well as for joint planting with eggplants and potatoes is calendula. It refers to medicinal plants that have a health effect on the soil. It is planted by the end of August and mow the green mass in the fall.Important! Calendula can be used in the fight against the Colorado potato beetle.
Not all plants have green manures, but their list includes up to 400 items. These crops can be planted on the plot all summer, alternating free areas, and mowed grass can be used for composting. Siderates are successfully replacing chemistry, and today gardeners and gardeners are increasingly using these unique plants.